Microscopic research on Plantago major L. and Plantago media L. in identification of medicinal plant-based raw material
Keywords:Plantago major L., Plantago media L., microscopy
Plant-based raw materials of generic species Plantago L. are widely used in world medicine as anti-inflammatory, vulnerary and anti-ulcerous agents. Pharmacologic efficiency is accounted by polysaccharides, aucubin, flavonoids, hydrocinnamic acids, vitamin A, amino-acids, etc. which are presented in the plant. Approximately 18 species of family Plantaginaceae Juss are grown up in Ukraine. But only Plantago major and Plantago lanceolate are officially recognized. Plantago media is near phylogenically to Plantago major, it has large plant base, similar composition and biologically active substances, but it isn’t used in Ukraine. Thus, comparative microscopic researches for two species of Plantago, revealing their diagnostic capacities for further practical using Plantago media in medicine are actual and topical.
The aim of our research was to determine general and specific diagnostic microscopic signs in plant-based raw material of Plantago major L. and Plantago media L.
Material and methods. Within microscopic study we have used leaves of Plantago major L. and Plantago media L. plants, picked during flowering in Ukraine. Fresh plant raw material has been fixed in mixture: glycerin, ethyl alcohol 96 %, purified water (1:1:1). The research has been done with using chloral hydrate according to methods recommended by State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine.
Results and discussion. While carrying out microscopic studies of plant raw material we turned our attention on structure of veins and cells in epidermis, availability, number and type of stoma, features for filaments and glandules, type of leaf lamina.
Conclusions. Isolateral type in structure of leaf lamina is the common microscopic diagnostic feature for both Plantago major L. and Plantago media L. The veins of both types are encircled by gross oval cells with starch inclusions. Related structure in lower epidermis of leaves, simple and glandulous filament are specific for both plants. Distinctions in anatomic structure of veins and stoma of studied species of Plantaginaceae Juss have been defined within microscopy. Presence of simple papilliform filament in Plantago media L. has been observed within microscopic study as well. Microscopic features obtained within our research allow to identify accurately plant raw material from morphologically related generic species Plantago major L. and Plantago media L.
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