Comparative chromato-mass spectrometric study of tinctures based on Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
Keywords:gas chromatography, Echinacea, component composition, immunomodulatory action
An urgent problem today is the spread of secondary immunodeficiencies associated with increased stress, urbanization, and negative changes in the environment that lead to impaired immune function. Herbal remedies are milder, less likely to become addictive and have side effects, and are long-lasting. A promising plant with immunomodulatory action is Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a member of the family Asteraceae. The main active ingredients of echinacea are phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, and alkylamides. The chemical composition of echinacea is also represented by flavonoids, tannins, saponins, higher fatty acids, amino acids, betaine, essential oil, macro- and microelements (Se, Co, Ag, Mo, Zn, Mg, K, Na, Fe, etc.). Drugs have immunostimulatory, antioxidant, membrane-stabilizing effect, promote healing of wounds, burns, ulcers, are used in infectious and viral diseases, especially HF. They are traditionally used for furunculosis, septicemia (infection of the blood), pyorrhea, tonsillitis, especially for the treatment of boils, carbuncles, and abscesses. It is also important that in modern pharmaceutical science the leading place is occupied by research related to the introduction into medical practice of herbal medicines, the study of their chemical composition, standardization, development of optimal technologies for the manufacture of phytopreparations. That is why the objects of our research were tinctures based on Echinacea purpurea.
The aim of the work is to study and compare the component composition of tinctures based on Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench using gas chromatography (GC).
Materials and methods. Tinctures of rhizomes with roots of Echinacea purpurea were used for the study: experimental – made according to industrial technological recipe (1:5, extractant – ethanol 70 %) from raw materials harvested in July 2019 at the research site of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University and control – finished products LLC “Zhytomyr Pharmaceutical Factory”, series 20319. Tinctures were investigated on a gas chromatograph Agilent 7890B with mass spectrometric detector 5977B. The NIST14 mass spectrum library was used to identify the components.
Results. 31 (experimental) and 23 (control) components were identified by GC in rhizomes with rhizomes of Echinacea purpurea. The results of the study indicate that the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of rhizomes with roots of Echinacea purpurea was characterized by complexity and variability. This fact complicates the process of standardization of phytopreparations and can affect their effectiveness and safety. Therefore, members of the genus Echinacea should be the subject of further in-depth chemical study.
Conclusions. A comparative analysis of the component composition of tinctures based on Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench was studied and performed with the help of GC. The GC method is suitable for the determination of natural BAS in the composition of phytopreparations from echinacea and can be used in the development of methods for their standardization. The results of the study were of value for further development and improvement of analytical regulations for raw materials and phytopreparations from Echinacea purpurea. They can also be the basis for the creation of new substances with immunomodulatory activity based on the underground organs of echinacea.
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