Study of flavonoids and phenolic acids in green tea leaves
Keywords:green tea, leaves, flavonoids, phenolic acids, high-performance liquid chromatography
The aim of work is study qualitative composition and quantitative content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in green tea leaves.
Material and methods. The object of the study was green tea leaves, which were collected in Anhui Province, China. The analysis of 60 % ethanolic extract from green tea leaves was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Prominence LC-20 Shimadzu chromatographic system (Japan) with an SPD-20AV spectrophotometric detector, an Agilent Technologies Microsorb-MV-150 column (reversed-phase, C18 modified silica gel, length – 250 mm, diameter – 4.6 mm, particles size – 5 μm). Identification of substances in the extract was carried out by comparing the retention time and the spectral characteristics of the test substances with the same characteristics of the reference standards.
Results. 13 compounds were identified and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among flavonoid aglycones quantitatively dominated by quercetin (0.35 %), in the case of flavonoid glycosides, it was luteolin-6-C-glycoside (1.30 %) and among phenolic acids, it was gallic acid (5.21 %).
Conclusions. The qualitative composition, quantitative content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the green tea leaves were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. According to HPLC, the content of flavonoids in green tea leaves was higher than the content of phenolic acids.
Jiang, H., Engelhardt, U. H., Thräne, C., Maiwald, B., & Stark, J. (2015). Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC. Food chemistry, 183, 30-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.024
Hu, B., Wang, L., Zhou, B., Zhang, X., Sun, Y., Ye, H., Zhao, L., Hu, Q., Wang, G., & Zeng, X. (2009). Efficient procedure for isolating methylated catechins from green tea and effective simultaneous analysis of ten catechins, three purine alkaloids, and gallic acid in tea by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Journal of chromatography. A, 1216(15), 3223-3231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.02.020
Namal Senanayake, S. P. J. (2013). Green tea extract: Chemistry, antioxidant properties and food applications - A review. Journal of Functional Foods, 5(4), 1529-1541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.08.011
Zhang, L., Cao, Q. Q., Granato, D., Xu, Y. Q., & Ho, C. T. (2020). Association between chemistry and taste of tea: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.05.015
Farris, P. K. (2013). Cosmeceuticals and Cosmetic Practice. Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, John: New York.
Engelhardt, U. H. (2013). Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
Basaveswara Rao, M. V., Prasanthi, V., Rao, G. V., & Raman, B. V. (2012). Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Dexrazoxane. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 74(6), 588-591. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.110627
Jeganathan, B., Punyasiri, P. A., Kottawa-Arachchi, J. D., Ranatunga, M. A., Abeysinghe, I. S., Gunasekare, M. T., & Bandara, B. M. (2016). Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects. International journal of food science, 2016, 6057434. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6057434
Miean, K. H., & Mohamed, S. (2001). Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 49(6), 3106-3112. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000892m
Yashin, A. Y., Nemzer, B. V., Combet, E., & Yashin, Y. I. (2015). Determination of the Chemical Composition of Tea by Chromatographic Methods: A Review. Journal of Food Research, 4(3), 56. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v4n3p56
Yin, D. D., Yuan, R. Y., Wu, Q., Li, S. S., Shao, S., Xu, Y. J., Hao, X. H., & Wang, L. S. (2015). Assessment of flavonoids and volatile compounds in tea infusions of water lily flowers and their antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry, 187, 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.032
Karamac, M., Kosinska, A., & Pegg, R. (2006). Content of gallic acid in selected plant extracts. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15(1), 55-58.
Khodakov, I. V. (2013). Sposob identifikatsii polifenolov v rastitel'nykh ekstraktakh pri pomoshchi VEZhKh. Opredelenie sostava izoflavonov soi [The HPLC method of identification of polyphenols in plant extracts by example of determination of isoflavone composition in soy seeds]. Metody i ob'ekty khimicheskogo analiza, 8(3), 132-142. [in Russian].
Huat Law, K., & Patmanatha Das, N. (1987). Dual-wavelength absorbance ratio and spectrum scanning techniques for identification of flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 388(C), 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94482-6
Sychev, S. N., & Gavrilina, V. A. (2013). Vysokoeffektivnaya zhidkostnaya khromatografiya. Analitika, fizicheskaya khimiya, raspoznavanie mnogokomponentnykh system [High performance liquid chromatography: analytics, physical chemistry, multicomponent system recognition]. Saint-Petersburg: Lan'. [in Russian].
Perva-Uzunalić, A., Škerget, M., Knez, Ž., Weinreich, B., Otto, F., & Grüner, S. (2006). Extraction of active ingredients from green tea (Camellia sinensis): Extraction efficiency of major catechins and caffeine. Food Chemistry, 96(4), 597-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.015
Zeng, L., Luo, L., Li, H., & Liu, R. (2017). Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 68(5), 525-537. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1263834
Jeszka-Skowron, M., Krawczyk, M., & Zgoła-Grześkowiak, A. (2015). Determination of antioxidant activity, rutin, quercetin, phenolic acids and trace elements in tea infusions: Influence of citric acid addition on extraction of metals. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 40, 70-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.12.015
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)