Comparative characteristics of fruit tinctures of some representatives of the family Apiaceae
Keywords:Apiaceae, tincture, chromato-mass spectroscopy, component composition, quantitative content
The family Apiaceae includes 474 genera and 3992–4050 species that are distributed around the globe. Of all the variety of species, our attention was drawn to the raw material of anise – Anisum vulgare Gaertrn.; fennel – Foeniculum vulgare Mill., which contains derivatives of phenylpropane; coriander – Coriandrum sativum L.; dill – Anethum graveolens L.; caraway – Carum carvi L., which is rich in monoterpenoid derivatives.
These plants are widely used in medical practice and known to have antimicrobial, antispasmodic, expectorant, antihypertensive, diuretic, choleretic, carminative effects. This versatility is due to the presence of different groups of biologically active substances in the raw materials of plants.
The aim of the research is to determine, by means of gas chromatography, a component composition of fruit tinctures of Anisum vulgare Gaertrn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Coriandrum sativum L. Anethum graveolens L. and Carum carvi L.
Materials and methods. Tinctures were prepared in ratio 1:5 (extractant – 70 % ethyl alcohol) from anise, fennel, coriander, dill, and caraway fruits, which had been harvested in the experimental field of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University in August 2019. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the active compounds was performed using an Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph with a 5977B mass spectrometric detector. The NIST14 mass spectrum library was used to identify the components.
Results. It has been revealed that the tinctures of Anisum vulgare Gaertrn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Coriandrum sativum L. Anethum graveolens L., and Carum carvi L. differ in qualitative and quantitative composition of components of chromato-mass spectrometry. Tinctures of Anethum fructus contain 28 components, among which 8.028 RT (-)-Carvone (52.63 %) and 4.861 RT D-Limonene (17.74 %) prevail. Tinctures of Coriandrum fructus contain 37 components with the highest content of 11,016 RT Benzene, 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl (20.7 %) and 19.372 RT 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dec-4-en-3-one (8.57 %). In the tincture of Carum carvi L., which contains 33 components, the following may be considered predominant: 7.988 RT Benzaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethyl) (47.37 %) and 19,311 RT undetermined compound (5.88 %). The tincture of Anisum fructus has 22 components, with the highest content of 8.531 RT Estragole (60.32 %) and 4.852 RT D-Limonene (5.15 %); Foeniculum fructus tincture contains 52 components, among which 5.745 RT Fenchone (15.39 %) and 8.5 RT Anethole (11.37 %) prevail.
Conclusions. The results of gas chromatography of fruits of the Apiaceae family significantly expand the information about the chemical composition of raw materials and indicate the prospects for use in pharmaceutical and medical practice. Analyzing the results of gas chromatography, it has been found that tinctures of fruits of the Apiaceae family differ in qualitative and quantitative composition of components. Tinctures of Foeniculum fructus contain 52 components, Coriandrum fructus – 37 components, Carum carvi L. contain 33 components, Anethum fructus – 28 components, Anisum fructus – 22 components. The obtained experimental data can be used to create regulatory documentation for a particular type of medicinal plant raw materials.
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