Measles in Zaporizhzhia: in the footsteps of the last epidemic
Keywords:measles, prevalence, epidemics, age groups, vaccination
In 2017–2019 in Ukraine, including the Zaporizhzhia region, a strong rise in the incidence of measles was recorded. A retrospective analysis of the incidence in the Zaporizhzhia region during this outbreak allows us to identify the main problems in the system of epidemiological surveillance to predict future possible consequences.
The aim of the work is to perform a comparative analysis of measles incidence in the Zaporizhzhia region with the data obtained in the period from 2015 to 2020 according to the epidemiological criteria.
Materials and methods. The annual reports of 2015–2020 provided by the Department of Epidemiological Research of the Zaporizhzhia Regional Laboratory Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine were used as materials for the retrospective epidemiological analysis of measles incidence in Zaporizhzhia region. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out according to epidemiological characteristics: age distribution, the residence of patients in urban or rural areas. Commonly used statistical methods used in medicine were used to evaluate the obtained results.
Results. It is concluded that in the Zaporizhzhia region during 2015 only 2 cases of measles were detected for children, and in 2016 no measles were registered in the region at all. In 2017–2019 1.433 measles patients were identified in the Zaporizhzhia region, of which 68 % were adults and 32 % were children. The lowest detection rate of measles was registered among rural residents. Insufficient vaccination coverage of the population has become a significant reason for the spread of measles among residents of the Zaporizhzhia region. In 2020 no cases of measles have been registered in the Zaporizhzhia region.
Conclusions. The prevalence of incidence rate among adults attests to the fact that today measles can not be considered only a childhood disease. The deficiency of an immune layer, both among adults and children, contributed to the rapid spread of the disease. Mandatory vaccination of children and the introduction of additional vaccination of adults, optimizing the system of epidemiological surveillance for measles, including continuous monitoring of vaccination, is the main mechanism for combating this disease.
Trykhlib, V. I., Shchur, A. B., Hrushkevych, V. V., Hryshyn, O. S., Pavlovska, M. O., Musiienko, T. I., Muzyka, H. A., Ralets, N. V., Dudar, D. M., & Kozachenko, L. V. (2018). Osoblyvosti klinichnykh proiaviv ta perebihu koru [Peculiarities of measles clinical manifestations and course]. Aktualna infektolohiia, 6(3), 141-152. [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.6.3.2018.136647
Yasunaga, H., Shi, Y., Takeuchi, M., Horiguchi, H., Hashimoto, H., Matsuda, S., & Ohe, K. (2010). Measles-related hospitalizations and complications in Japan, 2007-2008. Internal medicine, 49(18), 1965-1970. https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.49.3843
Premaratna, R., Luke, N., Perera, H., Gunathilake, M., Amarasena, P., & Chandrasena, T. G. (2017). Sporadic cases of adult measles: a research article. BMC research notes, 10(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2374-6
George, F., Valente, J., Augusto, G. F., Silva, A. J., Pereira, N., Fernandes, T., Palminha, P., Aguiar, B. A., Martins, A., Santos, E., Valente, P., Calé, E., Leça, A., & Nogueira, P. J. (2017). Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017. European communicable disease bulletin, 22(23), 30548. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.23.30548
Riabokon, Yu. Yu., Bilokobyla, S. O., & Riabokon, O. V. (2019). Current course of measles in adults (a literature review). Zaporozhye Medical Journal, 21(5), 697-701. https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2019.5.179480
Bilokobyla, S. O., Riabokon, O. V., Riabokon, Yu. Yu., & Onishchenko, N. V. (2020). Characteristics of serological profile in adult measles patients depending on the development of complications. Zaporozhye Medical Journal, 22(6), 823-827. https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2020.6.218457
Usachova, O. V., Silina, Y. A., Pakholchuk, T. M., Konakova, O. V., Dralova, O. A., Puhir, V. P., Firiulina, O. M., & Zelenukhina, Ye. V. (2019). Kir – kerovana infektsiia! Deiaki epidemiolohichni paradyhmy koru u Zaporizkii oblasti [Measles – controlled infection! Some epidemiological paradigm of measles in Zaporizhzhia region]. Sovremennaya pediatriya, (1), 13-18. [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15574/sp.2019.97.13
Kramarov, S. O., Yevtushenko, V. V., Kovaliukh, I. Iu., Kaminska, T. M., Holovach, O. V. (2018). Klinichna kartyna koru v ditei, hospitalizovanykh pid chas spalakhu 2017-2018 rr. [Clinical features of measles in children hospitalized during 2017-2018 outbreak]. Aktualna infektolohiia, 6(5), 240-245. [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.22141/2312- 413x.6.5.2018.146773
Mulholland, K., Kretsinger, K., Wondwossen, L., & Crowcroft, N. (2020). Action needed now to prevent further increases in measles and measles deaths in the coming years. Lancet, 396(10265), 1782-1784. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32394-1
Zimmerman, L. A., Muscat, M., Singh, S., Ben Mamou, M., Jankovic, D., Datta, S., Alexander, J. P., Goodson, J. L., & O'Connor, P. (2019). Progress Toward Measles Elimination - European Region, 2009-2018. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 68(17), 396-401. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6817a4
Holovanova, I. A., Bielikova, I. V., & Liakhova, N. O. (2017). Osnovy medychnoi statystyky [Fundamentals of medical statistics]. Ukrainska medychna stomatolohichna akademiia. [in Ukrainian].
Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. (2020). Infektsiina zakhvoriuvanist naselennia Ukrainy [Infectious morbidity of the population of Ukraine]. [in Ukrainian]. https://phc.org.ua/kontrol-zakhvoryuvan/inshi-infekciyni-zakhvoryuvannya/monitoring-i-ocinka/infekciyna-zakhvoryuvanist-naselennya-ukraini
Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. (2019, November 11). Dani zakhvoriuvanosti na kir (31.10-06.11.2019) [Data on the incidence of measles (31.10-06.11.2019)]. [in Ukrainian]. https://phc.org.ua/news/dani-zakhvoryuvanosti-na-kir-3110-06112019
Zaporizhia Regional State Administration. (2019, September 12). Skladna sytuatsiia iz zakhvoriuvanistiu na kir potrebuie dodatkovoi posylenoi imunizatsii [The difficult situation with measles requires additional enhanced immunization]. [in Ukrainian]. https://www.zoda.gov.ua/news/47069/skladna-situatsiya-iz-zahvorjuvanistju-na-kir-potrebuje-dodatkovoji-posilenoji-imunizatsiji.html
Ministry of Health of Ukraine. (2019, January 22). VOOZ: Vidmova vid vaktsynatsii ye hlobalnoiu zahrozoiu liudstvu [WHO: Refusal to vaccinate is a global threat to humanity]. [in Ukrainian]. https://moz.gov.ua/article/news/vooz-vidmova-vid-vakcinacii-e-globalnoju-zagrozoju-ljudstvu
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)