Clinically significant subjective features of highly qualified athletes with different types of cardiac rhythm regulation




data collection, medical history taking, heart rate, athlete


The aim of the study is to identify the characteristic subjective features of highly qualified athletes with different types of cardiac rhythm regulation.

Materials and methods. 202 highly qualified male athletes aged 22.6 ± 2.8 years and engaged in acyclic sports were examined. According to the designed survey protocol, all athletes were interviewed using a specifically designed questionnaire, which included 4 questions pools, each of them characterized certain components of athletes’ subjective assessment of their condition and attitude to it during the previous week, as well as studies using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography (SACR).

Results. The SACR study allowed to divide athletes, taking into account heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, into 4 groups according to the types of their cardiac rhythm regulation.

Subjective signs that might have clinical significance in the development of cardiovascular overexertion were uncomfortable sensations in the heart, feeling of interruption in the heart work, perspiration at rest, headache after sleep, perspiration at low loads, feeling of fatigue after sleep and night perspiration.

Uncomfortable sensations in the heart occurred frequently in 1 % of cases and periodically in 15.3 % of cases, and feeling of interruption in the heart work occurred frequently in 0.5 % of cases and periodically in 14.9 % of cases. These indications were typical of people with cardiac rhythm regulations type I and II. In type III the least number of clinically significant features was noted. In type IV the number of significant features was less than in types I and II; however, this is nonsignificant. Probable differences in the features of perspiration at rest were noticed in athletes with type IV in comparison with type III.

Conclusions. Subjective indications can be employed to verify the regulatory features of the cardiovascular system, which are associated with the centralization of effects. Questionnaires can be useful in differentiating states of overexertion according to parasympathetic type and a state of high training level in type IV cardiac rhythm regulation.


Bourdon, P. C., Cardinale, M., Murray, A., Gastin, P., Kellmann, M., Varley, M. C., Gabbett, T. J., Coutts, A. J., Burgess, D. J., Gregson, W., & Cable, N. T. (2017). Monitoring Athlete Training Loads: Consensus Statement. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 12(Suppl 2), S2161-S2170.

Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Foster, C., Fry, A., Gleeson, M., Nieman, D., Raglin, J., Rietjens, G., Steinacker, J., Urhausen, A., European College of Sport Science, & American College of Sports Medicine (2013). Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 45(1), 186-205.

Halson S. L. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports medicine, 44(Suppl 2), S139-S147.

Romanchuk, A. P. (2003). Kontseptual'nye predposylki sanogeneticheskogo monitoringa lits, zanimayushchikhsya fizicheskoi kul'turoi i sportom [Conceptual preconditions of sanogenetical monitoring of persons engaged in physical culture and sports]. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, (1), 50-53. [in Russian].

Romanchuk, A. P. (2002). Kompleksnaya otsenka mezhsistemnykh otnoshenii funktsional'nykh reaktsii organizma na fizicheskuyu nagruzku [Complex estimation of intersystem relations of functional reactions on physical load]. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, (4), 51-54. [in Russian].

Heidari, J., Kölling, S., Pelka, M., & Kellmann, M. (2018). Monitoring the recovery-stress state in athletes. Abingdon, Routle: Sport, Recovery and Performance: Interdisciplinary Insights.

Scherr, J., Wolfarth, B., Christle, J. W., Pressler, A., Wagenpfeil, S., & Halle, M. (2013). Associations between Borg's rating of perceived exertion and physiological measures of exercise intensity. European journal of applied physiology, 113(1), 147-155.

Bresciani, G., Cuevas, M. J., Molinero, O., Almar, M., Suay, F., Salvador, A., de Paz, J. A., Marquez, S., & González-Gallego, J. (2011). Signs of overload after an intensified training. International journal of sports medicine, 32(5), 338-343.

Decroix, L., Lamberts, R. P., & Meeusen, R. (2018). Can the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test Reflect Overreaching in Professional Cyclists?. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 13(1), 23-28.

Buchheit, M., Racinais, S., Bilsborough, J. C., Bourdon, P. C., Voss, S. C., Hocking, J., Cordy, J., Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Coutts, A. J. (2013). Monitoring fitness, fatigue and running performance during a pre-season training camp in elite football players. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 16(6), 550-555.

Pankova, N. B., Bogdanova, E. V., Karganov, M. Yu., Eigel, M. Ya., Kuznetsov, P. P., & Simakov, O. V. (2013). Poslenagruzochnaya dinamika pokazatelei serdechno-sosudistoi sistemy u yunykh sportsmenov (rezul'taty spiro-arterio-kardioritmografii). [After-load dynamics ofcardiovascular system inyoung athletes (results usedwith method of spyroarteriocardiorithmography)]. Valeologiya -Valeology, (3), 54-60. [in Russian].

Bellenger, C. R., Fuller, J. T., Thomson, R. L., Davison, K., Robertson, E. Y., & Buckley, J. D. (2016). Monitoring Athletic Training Status Through Autonomic Heart Rate Regulation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports medicine, 46(10), 1461-1486.

Guzii, O. V., & Romanchuk, A. P. (2016). Chutlyvist arterialnoho barorefleksu pry vidnovlenni orhanizmu pislia trenuvalnoho navantazhennia [Sensitivity of arterial baroreflex in the terms of body recovery after training load]. Zaporozhye medical journal, (3), 24-29. [in Ukrainian].

Guzii, O. V., & Romanchuk, A. P. (2017). Heart rate variability during controlled respiration after endurance training. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3), 2024-2029.

Romanchuk, O. P.,& Guzii, O. V. (2020). Peculiarities of Changes in Respiratory Variability under the Influence of Training Load in Athletes with Cardiovascular Overstrain by Sympathetic Type. International Journal of Education and Science, 3(2), 54.

Romanchuk, А., & Guzii, O. (2020). Variability and Pattern of Spontaneous Respiration in Different Types of Cardiac Rhythm Regulation of Highly Trained Athletes. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 8(6), 483-493.

Guzii, O. V., Romanchuk, A. P., & Маhlovanyy, А. V.(2020). Sensomotorni pokaznyky yak kryterii vplyvu intensyvnykh fizychnykh navantazhen na orhanizm sportsmena [Sensorimotor Indicators as Criteria of the Intense Physical Loads Influence on the Athlete's Body]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal medytsyny, biolohii ta sportu, 5(3), 351-358. [in Ukrainian].

Romanchuk, O. P., & Guzii, O. V. (2020). Sensorimotor Criteria for the Formation of the Autonomic Overstrain of the Athletes’ Cardiovascular System. International Journal of Science Annals, 3(1), 46-53.

Semashko, L. V., Pankova, N. B., & Karganov, M. Y. (2010). Izmeneniya psikhofiziologicheskikh pokazatelei i funktsional'nogo sostoyaniya kardio-respiratornoi sistemy u detei i podrostkov, zanimayushchikhsya po "metodike psikhofiziologicheskoi adaptatsii k vysokim psikhoemotsional'nym i fizicheskim nagruzkam" [Changes in psychophysiological parameters and functional state of the cardiorespiratory system in children and adolescents engaged in the "method of psychophysiological adaptation to high psycho-emotional and physical stress"]. Bulletin of Rehabilitation Medicine, (2), 41-45. [in Russian].

Gleeson, M. (2002). Biochemical and immunological markers of over-training. Journal of sports science & medicine, 1(2), 31-41.

Wiewelhove, T., Raeder, C., Meyer, T., Kellmann, M., Pfeiffer, M., & Ferrauti, A. (2016). Effect of Repeated Active Recovery During a High-Intensity Interval-Training Shock Microcycle on Markers of Fatigue. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 11(8), 1060-1066.

Romanchuk, A. P. (2002). Rezul'taty primeneniya metoda lazernoi korrelyatsionnoi spektroskopii v sporte [Results of applying the method of laser correlation spectroscopy in sports]. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, (1), 35-37. [in Russian].

Goldstein, D. S. (2009). Sympathetic noradrenergic and adrenomedullary hormonal systems in stress and distress. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. 673-678). Elsevier Ltd.

Grove, J. R., Main, L. C., Partridge, K., Bishop, D. J., Russell, S., Shepherdson, A., & Ferguson, L. (2014). Training distress and performance readiness: laboratory and field validation of a brief self-report measure. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 24(6), e483-e490.

Mittly, V., Németh, Z., Berényi, K., & Mintál, T.(2016). Mind Does Matter: The Psychological Effect of Ankle Injury in Sport. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 6(4), 1000278.

Freitas, V. H., Nakamura, F. Y., Miloski, B., Samulski, D., & Bara-Filho, M. G. (2014). Sensitivity of physiological and psychological markers to training load intensification in volleyball players. Journal of sports science & medicine, 13(3), 571-579.

Saw, A. E., Main, L. C., & Gastin, P. B. (2015). Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 29(3), 685-691.

Kallus, K. W. (2016). Stress and Recovery: An Overview. In K. W. Kallus & M. Kellmann (Eds.). The Recovery-Stress Questionnaires: User Manual. Frankfurt am Main: Pearson Assessment & Information GmbH.

Brink, M. S., Visscher, C., Coutts, A. J., & Lemmink, K. A. (2012). Changes in perceived stress and recovery in overreached young elite soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 22(2), 285-292.

Laux, P., Krumm, B., Diers, M., & Flor, H. (2015). Recovery-stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study. Journal of sports sciences, 33(20), 2140-2148.

Meister, S., Faude, O., Ammann, T., Schnittker, R., & Meyer, T. (2013). Indicators for high physical strain and overload in elite football players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 23(2), 156-163.

van der Does, H. T., Brink, M. S., Otter, R. T., Visscher, C., & Lemmink, K. A. (2017). Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 27(1), 46-51.

Kölling, S., Steinacker, J. M., Endler, S., Ferrauti, A., Meyer, T., & Kellmann, M. (2016). The longer the better: Sleep-wake patterns during preparation of the World Rowing Junior Championships. Chronobiology international, 33(1), 73-84.

Fullagar, H. H., Duffield, R., Skorski, S., White, D., Bloomfield, J., Kölling, S., & Meyer, T. (2016). Sleep, Travel, and Recovery Responses of National Footballers During and After Long-Haul International Air Travel. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 11(1), 86-95.

Nässi, A., Ferrauti, A., Meyer, T., Pfeiffer, M., & Kellmann, M. (2017). Development of two short measures for recovery and stress in sport. European journal of sport science, 17(7), 894-903.

Korman, N., Armour, M., Chapman, J., Rosenbaum, S., Kisely, S., Suetani, S., Firth, J., & Siskind, D. (2020). High Intensity Interval training (HIIT) for people with severe mental illness: A systematic review & meta-analysis of intervention studies- considering diverse approaches for mental and physical recovery. Psychiatry research, 284, 112601.

Impellizzeri, F. M., Rampinini, E., Coutts, A. J., Sassi, A., & Marcora, S. M. (2004). Use of RPE-based training load in soccer. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 36(6), 1042-1047.

Pivovarov, V. V. (2006). Spiroarteriokardioritmograf [Spiroarteriocardiorytmograph]. Meditsinskaya tekhnika, (1), 38-41. [in Russian].

Guzii, O. V., Romanchuk, A. P., Mahlovanyi, A. V., & Trach, V. M. (2019). Polyfunctional express-evaluation criteria of the sportsman organism state. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(4), 2352-2358.

Guzii, O., & Romanchuk, A. (2017). Differentiation of Hemodynamics of Top Athletes Depending on Heart Rate Variability after Training. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 22(3), 1-10.

Romanchuk, A. P. (2005). Vegetativnaya regulyatsiya kardiorespiratornoi sistemy v dinamike godichnogo trenirovochnogo tsikla [Features of autonomic regulation of cardiorespiration system in dynamics of training cycle of year]. Theory and practice of physical culture, (6), 42-45. [in Russian].

Romanchuk, O. P. (2010). Likarsko-pedahohichnyi kontrol v ozdorovchii fizychnii kulturi [Medical and pedagogical control in health-improving physical culture]. Odesa, Ukrainian: Bukaev V. V. [in Ukrainian].

Shlyk, N. I. (2016). Upravlenie trenirovochnym protsessom sportsmenov s uchetom individual'nykh kharakteristik variabel'nosti ritma serdtsa. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Management of athletic training taking into account individual heart rate variability characteristics]. Fiziologiya cheloveka, 42(6), 81-91. [in Russian].

Shlyk, N. I. (2020). Variabel'nost' serdechnogo ritma v pokoe i ortostaze pri raznykh diapazonakh znachenii MxDMn u lyzhnits-gonshchits v trenirovochnom protsesse [Heart rate variability at rest and during an orthostatic challenge at different ranges of MxDMn values in female skiers in the training process]. Nauka i sport: sovremennye tendentsii, 1(8), 83-96. [in Russian].

Guzii, O.V., Romanchuk, A.P., & Maglovanyy, A.V. (2020). Postnavantazhuvalna dynamika pokaznykiv variabelnosti sertsevoho rytmu u vysokokvalifikovanykh sportsmeniv pry formuvanni perenapruzhen za sympatychnym ta parasympatychnym typamy [Post-Loading Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability Indices in Highly Qualified Athletes in the Formation of Overstrains by Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Types]. Art of Medicine, (4), 28-36. [in Ukrainian].

Drezner, J. A., Sharma, S., Baggish, A., Papadakis, M., Wilson, M. G., Prutkin, J. M., Gerche, A., Ackerman, M. J., Borjesson, M., Salerno, J. C., Asif, I. M., Owens, D. S., Chung, E. H., Emery, M. S., Froelicher, V. F., Heidbuchel, H., Adamuz, C., Asplund, C. A., Cohen, G., Harmon, K. G., … Corrado, D. (2017). International criteria for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: Consensus statement. British journal of sports medicine, 51(9), 704-731.

Mykhaliuk, Ye. L., & Syvolap, V. V. (2019). Osoblyvosti elektrokardiohramy osib, yaki zaimaiutsia sportom. Povidomlennia I (ohliad literatury) [Electrocardiographic features in people involved in sports. Report І (a literature review)]. Zaporozhye medical journal, 21(2), 264-269. [in Ukrainian].

Mykhaliuk, Ye. L., Syvolap, V. V., Hunina, L. M., & Holovashchenko, R. V. (2019). Fiziolohichni ta potentsiino patolohichni zminy na EKH u predstavnykiv plavannia riznykh sportyvnykh kvalifikatsii [Physiological and potentially pathological ECG changes in swimmers of different sports qualifications]. Zaporozhye medical journal, 21(1), 39-43. [in Ukrainian].

Mykhaliuk, Ye. L., Hunina, L. M., & Kuzmenko, M. V. (2018). Analiz elektrokardiohrafichnykh pokaznykiv u yedynobortsiv zalezhno vid sportyvnoi kvalifikatsii [Analysis of Electrocardiographic Indicators in Combating Sportsmen Depending on their Sports Qualification]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal medytsyny, biolohii ta sportu, 3(3), 176-183. [in Ukrainian].

Flatt, A. A., Esco, M. R., Allen, J. R., Robinson, J. B., Earley, R. L., Fedewa, M. V., Bragg, A., Keith, C. M., & Wingo, J. E. (2018). Heart Rate Variability and Training Load Among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 College Football Players Throughout Spring Camp. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 32(11), 3127-3134.

Flatt, A. A., Hornikel, B., & Esco, M. R. (2017). Heart rate variability and psychometric responses to overload and tapering in collegiate sprint-swimmers. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 20(6), 606-610.

Nuuttila, O. P., Nikander, A., Polomoshnov, D., Laukkanen, J. A., & Häkkinen, K. (2017). Effects of HRV-Guided vs. Predetermined Block Training on Performance, HRV and Serum Hormones. International journal of sports medicine, 38(12), 909-920.

Pelliccia, A., Maron, B. J., Culasso, F., Di Paolo, F. M., Spataro, A., Biffi, A., Caselli, G., & Piovano, P. (2000). Clinical significance of abnormal electrocardiographic patterns in trained athletes. Circulation, 102(3), 278-284.

Walsh, N. P., Halson, S. L., Sargent, C., Roach, G. D., Nédélec, M., Gupta, L., Leeder, J., Fullagar, H. H., Coutts, A. J., Edwards, B. J., Pullinger, S. A., Robertson, C. M., Burniston, J. G., Lastella, M., Le Meur, Y., Hausswirth, C., Bender, A. M., Grandner, M. A., & Samuels, C. H. (2020). Sleep and the athlete: narrative review and 2021 expert consensus recommendations. British journal of sports medicine, bjsports-2020-102025. Advance online publication.




How to Cite

Guzii OV, Mahlovanyi AV, Trach VM. Clinically significant subjective features of highly qualified athletes with different types of cardiac rhythm regulation. Current issues in pharmacy and medicine: science and practice [Internet]. 2021Mar.18 [cited 2024May24];14(1):84-92. Available from:



Original research