Phytochemical profile and diuretic activity of the bearberry leaves dry extracts
Keywords:bearberry, plant leaves, phenolic compounds, saponins, diuretic effect
More than 150 million cases of infectious diseases of the urinary system are registered annually in the world. Common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.) leaves is one of the most well-known species of raw materials with uroantiseptic and diuretic activity. The method of a decoction obtaining from bearberry leaves is well known, but this dosage form is non-standardized, poorly stored and difficult to maintain the accuracy of dosing. In this regard, the development of domestic standardized medicines based on bearberry leaves is an urgent aim of modern pharmacy.
The aim of the research is to study the phytochemical profile and pharmacological activity of the bearberry leaves dry extracts, obtained by various extractants, to identify the most promising substance with diuretic and uroantiseptic activity.
Materials and methods. The subjects were the dry extracts obtained from bearberry leaves with purified water and ethanol solutions (30 %, 50 %, 70 % and 96 %). Determination of the main BAS extracts was performed by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometry. Determination of diuretic activity of the extracts was performed by the method of E. B. Berchin, antibacterial activity – by diffusion into agar.
Results. Arbutin, 2 phenolic acids, 6 flavonoids and 8 saponins were detected in the bearberry extracts. The results showed that arbutin and saponins are better extracted with water and diluted solutions of ethanol, while phenolic acids and flavonoids – with 50–70 % ethanol. As a result of studying the diuretic activity of the bearberry extracts, it was found that the highest diuretic activity has the extract obtained with 50 % ethanol at a dose of 50 mg/kg, increasing diuresis by 70 %. The bearberry leaves extracts showed activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and C. albicans. The content of different groups of phenolic compounds, economic factor and pharmacological activity showed that 50 % ethanol is the optimal extractant for extraction phenolic compounds from bearberry leaves and creation of new medicines from the raw materials.
Conclusions. As a result of phytochemical and pharmacological studies, it was found that the dry bearberry leaves extract obtained with 50 % ethanol solution was the most promising substance with diuretic and uroantiseptic action
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