Comparative pharmacognostic and pharmacological study of Salvia verticillata and Salvia officinalis leaves to establish the prospect of creating a new medicines
Keywords:genus Salvia, non-pharmacopoeial species, leaves, microscopic analysis, chemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity
The raw material base of medicinal plants in Ukraine is sufficient only for half of the pharmacopoeial species. Most of them are growing in insufficient quantities and there is a need to import them. In the conditions of import dependence and scarcity of domestic raw materials, the search for new sources of biologically active substances among the representatives of the Ukrainian flora is an urgent aim of modern pharmaceutical science.
The purpose of the research is to conduct comparative pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies of S. verticillata and S. officinalis leaves to determine the possibility of using non-pharmacopoeial species in pharmaceutical and medical practice.
Materials and methods. The objects of the study are S. verticillata and S. officinalis leaves, which was harvested in the botanical garden of the I. Franko Lviv National University. The morphological and anatomical structure of the species leaves was studied by light microscopy. The study of macro- and microelement composition in the S. officinalis and S. verticillata leaves was carried out by atomic emission spectrographic method. Determination of the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the main groups of biologically active substances was carried out by HPLC. The quantitative determination of phenolic compounds was also carried out by spectrophotometric method. The anti-inflammatory activity of galenic extracts from the leaves of the studied species was studied using a model of acute inflammatory edema caused by subplant implantation of a carrageenin solution.
Results. Using light microscopy, we studied the key microscopic and diagnostic signs of S. verticillata leaves. The content of 15 micro and macroelements was found in both studied species. 15 and 14 amino acids, 8 and 6 saponins, respectively, were identified in the S. officinalis and S. verticillata leaves. By HPLC, the qualitative composition and quantitative content of phenolic substances in the S. officinalis and S. verticillata leaves (13 and 12 compounds, respectively) was established. The maximum antiexudative effect of the dry extracts from the S officinalis and S. verticillata leaves was observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg.
The dominant of elements are silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium. The total content of trace elements in the leaves of S. verticillata is 1.78 times higher than in the pharmacopeia S. officinalis. The total content of saponins predominates in the leaves of S. verticillata and is 15.09 mg/g, which is 12.1 % more than in the pharmacopeia specie. The total flavonoid content in the leaves of S. verticillata is 1.57 times higher than in the pharmacopeia one S. officinalis, the content of hydroxycinnamic acids is highest in the S. officinalis leaves. The highest total content of all phenolic compounds is characteristic of S. verticillata leaves, which is 37.18 % (1.37 times) more than the pharmacopeia S. officinalis. At a dose of 50 mg/kg the anti-inflammatory effect of the dry extract from the S. verticillata leaves was comparable to the activity of the substance from the S. officinalis leaves.
Conclusions. As a result of comparative pharmacognostic and pharmacological study of S. verticillata and S. officinalis leaves, it was found that S. verticillata is a promising species for introduction into medical and pharmaceutical practice, precisely as a source of phenolic compounds. The anti-inflammatory effect of the dry extract of S. verticillata leaves was compared with that of the substance of S. officinalis leaves, which indicates the possibility of creating a new anti-inflammatory medicine based on it.
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