Comparative chromato-mass spectroscopy studies on tinctures of Valeriana stolonifera Czern.
Keywords:Valerian roots and tinctures, chromato-mass spectroscopy, component composition, quantitative content
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.s.l.) is a flowering plant that includes 13 species in Ukraine. Valeriana stolonifera Czern is the most common of southern species that can be found in the Zaporizhzhia region. The duration and effectiveness of its drying depend on morphological features of Medicinal Herb Raw Material (MHRM), reference humidity, total surface area, thickness and lignification of the roots. Due to the process of dehydration as a result of drying, the increase of active substances in MHRM is sometimes observed. This process is conditionally called a “ripening stage”, or fermentation.
The purpose of the work is to determine, by means of gas-liquid chromatography, the component composition of valerian tinctures made from fresh roots of Valeriana stolonifera Czern and dried with different periods of drying (7 days, 14 days and 21 days).
Materials and methods. The tinctures were prepared according to production procedure (Tinctura Rhizomata cum radicibus Valerianae (1 : 5) (The extractant is ethanol, 70 %) made from the roots of Valeriana stolonifera Czern, which were harvested in November 2019 in the vicinity of Zaporizhzhia region (Kantserivska balka). Component composition of the Valeriana tinctures was investigated using the gas chromatograph Agilent 7890B with a 5977B mass spectrometry detector.
Results. By means of chromatic-mass spectrometry in the valerian tinctures from raw materials, 49 component compositions were identified. After 7 days of drying, 83 components were identified; after 14 days – 95 components; after 21 days – 95 components.
The qualitative composition showed that 25 components were present in all of the investigated tinctures. Some amount of components increased in number during the process of drying . The result of the researches proves that the level of valeric acid in the raw material was 1.84 %; after 7 days of drying – 2.65 %; after 14 days – 3.21 %; after 21 days – 3.72 %.
Conclusions. Analyzing the obtained data of the GLC it can be seen that valerian tinctures differ both in quantitative and qualitative composition. 25 compounds were present in all investigated series, 6 of which are present in large numbers.
Since the tinctures were made in one technology, the content of essential oils in the medicinal plant depends not only on species, place and time of collection, ecology and climate latitudes but in a significant way on drying of raw materials.
Given the extraordinary polymorphism of valerian for the introduction into the culture of promising species growing in Ukraine, it was necessary to conduct deeper pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies.
Experimental data obtained in the process of the research can be used for creating regulatory and analytical documentation for a certain type of raw materials and were of undoubted practical importance.
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